Thursday, February 27, 2014

Einstein's Puzzle Thorough Walkthrough (Spoilers)- Pt3

This is the walkthrough for Einstein's Puzzle. If you haven't read the original puzzle/question, you should go ahead and click on the link below. Below will be the explanation of the method I utilized to solve the puzzle. If you want to avoid spoilers you should view the original question before reading below.

For Previous parts: Part 1, Part 2

You can find the Puzzle here.

Click here for a Spoiler-free answer check


So this is simple logic puzzle with no real tricks or second guesses. So all you really need is organization to solve this puzzle. I'll be breaking this walkthrough into parts, so you can try it on your own after reading an article:

Here's how I solved it.

So here is my three categories of clues (for your ease of reference)

          Direct Link:
  1. Brit * Red House
  2. Swede * Dogs
  3. Dane * Tea
  4. Green * Coffee
  5. Pall Mall * Birds
  6. Yellow * Dunhill
  7. #3 * Milk
  8. Norwegian * #1
  9. Bluemaster * Juice
  10. German * Prince

  11. Green (L) White
  12. Blends (N) Cats
  13. Horse (N) Dunhill
  14. Norwegian (N) Blue
  15. Blends (N) Water

    Negative Link:
  16. Green ~ White
  17. Blends ~ Cats
  18. Horse ~ Dunhill
  19. Norwegian ~ Blue
  20. Blends ~ Water
*  = linked
(L) = is left of
(N) = is next to
~ = Is not linked to

The reason I do this is to make referencing and understanding the clues much faster and more efficient. I refer to each of these clues by #. For instance the link between house #3 and Milk is Clue 7.

So this is probably the point where most people become frustrated and begin to guess. But we don't want to do that. 

Instead, you start to look at the clues more carefully and see how they interact with one another.

Deduction 1:
So we know that the Norwegian is house #1 (Clue 8), and is on the far left. We also know that the house next to it is Blue (Clue 14). Since there is only 1 house next to it, then house #2 must be blue. So Blue * #2. We can use that to update our lists. 

If it can't be blue, then it can't be #2. And vice-versa.
Sadly this only really affects the Brit, by eliminating the possibility that he could be #2.

Deduction 2:
We know that the Green house is to the Left of the white one. So if Green is #3, then White must be #4. or if Green is #4 then Green is #5. We get some interesting results from this:

  • If we combine this with Deduction 1, which says that #2 is blue, then it means that either Green is #3 and white is #4, or Green is #4 and white is #5. Essentially, Green can't be linked with #5, nor #1.
  • Since we know White has to be to the left of Green, then Green can't be linked to #1, since white would have to be #2, which clashes with our knowledge that Blue is #2. Additionally, White can't be #1 since there would be no way for Green to be on the left (there is no house #0). So neither Green nor White can be #1, nor #2.
The Norwegian's data is updated. Since he is #1, It eliminates the possibility of him being Green and White. Since the Brit is Red, and house # 2 is blue, this means that we know the Norwegian is in Yellow. 

This updates the Data of almost everyone. 
Since the Brit is in Red, and the Norwegian is in Yellow
  • Swede: Green, White, Blue
  • Dane: White, Blue
  • German: Green, White, Blue
Additionally, Since we know the Norwegian is in Yellow, Thanks to Clue 6, we also knows he smokes Dunhill.

More updates to possibilities:
  • Brit- Pall Mall, Blends, Bluemaster
  • Swede- Blends, Bluemaster
  • Dane- Pall Mall, Blends
  • Norwegian- Dunhill
From Clue 13, we know the Dunhill Smoker is next to the Horses, and as a result is not a Horse owner (clue 18). Additionally, since the Norwegian is #1 (clue 8), and since he is the Dunhill smoker, then #2 is the Horse owner (Clue 13). So if you don't have the possibility to own horses, you can't be #2
  • Norwegian- Birds, Fish, Cat
  • Swede- Dogs
    • (Can't be #2)
      • #3, #4, #5 are the remaining possibilities
  • Brit- Birds, Fish, Cat, Horses
  • Dane- Birds, Fish, Cat, Horses
  • German- Fish, Cat, Horses
At this point, you start to double check the non-nationality link clues against your newly acquired information (The ones that link non-nationality traits together): 

(small)Deduction 3:
Since we know house #1 * yellow, #2 * Blue, then all we have left are Red, Green, and White. Since we know that Green must be to the left of White (clue 11), then Red can only be #3 or #5 since it can't be in the center.
  • So the Brit is limited to #3, or #5.

(small)Deduction 4:
Due to Clue 5- only the person who smokes Pall Mall can be the bird owner, and vice versa.
  • Update: Norwegian can only own: Fish Cat, Horses
(small)Deduction 5:
Clue 9 says that Bluemaster and Juice must be linked. So only if both of those are possibilities can it apply to you.
  • Update: Norwegian can only drink: Coffee, Water
Deduction 6:

It almost appears as if we hit a wall. However, we know that the Norwegian can only drink either Coffee or Water, which is a 50/50 shot. We have the opportunity to do a hypothetical with good results.

(water possibility)
Since we know that the Blends Smoker lives next to the Water drinker (Clue 15), I figure it would be more interesting to start with this hypothetical. So if the Norwegian of #1 was the water drinker, then #2 * Blue *Blends.Of the remaining nationalities, there is only the Dane who fits that category. 

This would mean:
  • Dane * #2 *Blue *Blends
    • Also ~Cats (clue 17), and (N) Cats (clue 12)
  • (as a result) Swede would be the Bluemaster Smoker
    • And juice drinker (clue 9)
  • (as a result of that)
    • Brit- Drinks: Milk (result)
      • Smokes Pall Mall (result)
    • German- Drinks: Coffee
Here's how my chart looks:
Made a mistake. Swede shouldn't have Yellow on there. My bad.

We might then look back at our clues and look for new links given all the information we received:
  • Clue 5 says the Pall Mall smoker owns the birds:
    • The Brit owns the birds
  • Clue 4 says the person in the green house drinks coffee
    • The German drinks coffee and is in the green house
      • As a result he cannot be house #5 since the white house must be to to his right.
      • Thus the Swede is in the White house

  • Clue 13 says the Horse owner lives next to the Dunhill smoker.
    • The Norwegian smokes Dunhill and lives at #1, which means our friend the Dane at #2 owns the Horses.
  • Clue 7 says #3 is a milk drinker. Thus, the Brit who drinks milk is in house #3.
    • Brit * #3
This also means that the German is at house #4, and the Swede is at #5. We have all the houses all set up. All that remains is the fish and cat.

  • Clue 12 says that the Blends smoker is next to the Cat owner. Since the Dane is the Blends smoker, and lives in #2, either #1 or #3, must own a cat
    • Since the Brit owns a bird, then that only leaves the Norwegian with the Cat.
    • The German would be the fish owner.

Answer: The German owns the fish.

Double check your answers by seeing if it fits with every one of the clues. 

Well that's it for the walkthrough of the Einstein Puzzle. I hope you enjoyed it and learned something along the way!

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